ON THE INSIDE

Health and Nutrition

 

 

RICH

in vitamins
and minerals

Mushrooms are rich in essential vitamins and minerals, such as Vitamin D, riboflavin and selenium. They are one of the highest antioxidant foods on the market.

 

 

 

SUPER

little package

Mushrooms contain a unique bundle of protein, carbohydrates and fibre, all in a tasty little package.

Plus they are low in fat, sodium and kilojoules.

THE FACTS

at a glance

 

 

 

immunity

BOOST

Adding mushrooms to your diet can help boost immunity, give your skin a healthy glow, keep your heart healthy and more!

 

 

packed
full of

FLAVOUR

Mushrooms have a deliciously rich ‘umami’ flavour, which can replace some of the salt used in recipes.

 

 

naturally

GLUTEN
FREE

Mushrooms are naturally gluten free, help keep blood glucose levels normal and have a very low GI – so they are delicious option for people with diabetes or following a gluten-free diet.

THE FACTS

at a glance

 

 

RICH

in vitamins
and minerals

Mushrooms are rich in essential vitamins and minerals, such as Vitamin D, riboflavin and selenium. They are one of the highest antioxidant foods on the market.

 

 

 

SUPER

little package

Mushrooms contain a unique bundle of protein, carbohydrates and fibre, all in a tasty little package.

Plus they are low in fat, sodium and kilojoules.

 

 

 

immunity

BOOST

Adding mushrooms to your diet can help boost immunity, give your skin a healthy glow, keep your heart healthy and more!

 

 

packed
full of

FLAVOUR

Mushrooms have a deliciously rich ‘umami’ flavour, which can replace some of the salt used in recipes.

 

 

naturally

GLUTEN
FREE

Mushrooms are naturally gluten free, help keep blood glucose levels normal and have a very low GI – so they are delicious option for people with diabetes or following a gluten-free diet.

Mushrooms contain a range of valuable antioxidants and have been shown to be one of the highest antioxidant foods on the market. In a study of 30 common vegetables, mushrooms were placed in the top five for highest antioxidant capacity when compared to other vegetables.1 Mushrooms are also the highest dietary source of a unique sulfur-containing antioxidant called ergothioneine (er-go-thio-neen).2 They contain antioxidant vitamins and minerals such as riboflavin, copper and selenium, and polyphenols.3 So it’s not surprisingly eating 100g or just 3 mushrooms a day improves your antioxidant status.4

Antioxidants are natural compounds found in food and they help neutralise free radicals.5,6 Free radicals can cause damage to the body over time, speeding up the ageing process. For example, free radicals can damage the DNA (our genetic blueprint) found in the centre of our body cells. The antioxidants in foods like mushrooms can provide a helping hand to protect the body from the effects of too many free radicals.

Mushrooms like vegetables are very low in sodium, high in potassium and are virtually saturated fat free.

This makes mushrooms the perfect addition to a healthy diet to help maintain blood pressure and blood cholesterol7. Research has found eating mushrooms on a daily basis improves total cholesterol levels, triglycerides as well as blood glucose levels.8 Overall mushrooms as part of a healthy diet contribute to our heart health.9

Mushrooms can help keep your gut healthy. A 100g serve of cooked mushrooms provides around 3g of dietary fibre, which is about 10% of your daily fibre needs.10 The fibre in mushrooms is mainly insoluble, the type that helps keep your bowels regular. Around 15% of the total dietary fibre in mushrooms is resistant starch type 1.10

Resistant starch acts as a prebiotic because it feeds the healthy bacteria in the large intestine or bowel. Eating mushrooms in place of red meat has been found to positively modify the gut microbiome and improve bowel function.11 Mushrooms also contain glutamates which contribute to their deliciously rich savoury flavour. Glutamates are also a signalling molecule in the nervous system of the gut which can help signal fullness.11,12 Together the fibre and glutamates in mushrooms may help control appetite.

Mushrooms are ideally suited for those watching their weight because they are low in kilojoules. Three button mushrooms (100g) has only 86kJs (20kcals). Mushrooms can also make a meal more filling.

Research has found that after consuming a mushroom rich breakfast, people found the mushrooms were more filling and they had reduced hunger following the meal, compared to eating red meat for breakfast. Although there was no difference in how much energy was consumed overall after 10 days of eating mushrooms or red meat.14 Another study found overweight people who replaced red meats with at least 450g of button mushrooms a week as part of an energy restricted diet for a year, consumed less energy overall and lost more weight and centimetres around their waists, compared to red meat eaters following an energy restricted diet.15 Mushroom eaters also had reduced blood pressure, total and LDL cholesterol and blood glucose.15

Three button mushrooms (100g) provides many key nutrients needed for healthy skin, hair or nails: niacin, biotin, copper, and selenium.

Mushrooms exposed to UV light naturally generate vitamin D. Vitamin D plays an important role in keeping skin healthy.16 Around 100g or three button mushrooms placed in the sun for an hour will generate 100% of your daily vitamin D needs.17 Some farmers are now producing mushrooms with a day’s supply of vitamin D (10-15ug) in a single serve by giving mushrooms a pulse of UV light after harvesting.

REFERENCES

  1. Pellegrini N, et al. Total antioxidant capacity of plant foods, beverages and oils consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays. J Nutrition 2003; 133: 2812-2819
  2. Kalaras MD et al Mushrooms: A rich source of the antioxidantsergothioneine and glutathione. Food Chem. 2017 Oct 15;233:429-433. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.04.109.
  3. USDA Database for the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of Selected Foods, Release 2 2010 (Note only total polyphenol content is used)
  4. Calvo MS et al. A Retrospective Study in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome: Diabetic Risk Factor Response to Daily Consumption of Agaricus bisporus (White Button Mushrooms). Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2016 Sep;71(3):245-51. doi: 10.1007/s11130-016-0552-7.
  5. Savoie JM, et al. Radical-scavenging properties of extracts from the white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. J of the Science of Food & Agriculture 2008; 88: 970-975.
  6. Sánchez C et al. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant properties from mushrooms. Synth Syst Biotechnol. 2016 Dec 24;2(1):13-22. doi: 10.1016/j.synbio.2016.12.001.
  7. Food Standards Australia New Zealand Australian Food Standards Code. Schedule 4 Nutrition, health and related claims.
  8. Khatun K et al. Oyster mushroom reduced blood glucoseand cholesterolin diabetic subjects. Mymensingh Med J. 2007 Jan;16(1):94-9.
  9. Guillamón E, et al. Edible mushrooms: role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Fitoterapia 2010; 81 (7): 715-723
  10. Dikeman CL, et al. Effects of stage of maturity and cooking on the chemical composition of selected mushroom varieties. J Agricultural & Food Chemistry 2005; 53: 1130-1138.
  11. Hess J et al. Impact of Agaricus bisporus MushroomConsumption on Gut Health Markers in Healthy Adults. Nutrients. 2018 Oct 2;10(10). pii: E1402. doi: 10.3390/nu10101402.
  12. Uneyama H et al. Physiological role of dietary free glutamatein the food digestion. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:372-5.
  13. Masic U et al. Umami flavor enhances appetite but also increases satiety. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Aug;100(2):532-8. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.080929.
  14. Hess JM et al. Impact of Agaricus bisporus mushroom consumption on satietyand food intake. Appetite. 2017 Oct 1;117:179-185. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.021.
  15. Poddar KH, et al. Positive effect of mushrooms substituted for meat on body weight, body composition, and health parameters. A 1-year randomized clinical trial. Appetite 2013; 71: 379-387
  16. MostafaW Z et al. Vitamin D and the skin: Focus on a complex relationship: A review. J Adv Res 2015 Nov; 6(6): 793–804.
  17. Phillips KM, Rasor AS. A nutritionally meaningful increase in the vitamin D in retail mushrooms is attainable by exposure to sunlight prior to consumption. Nutrition & Food Sciences 2013; 3 (6):

Mushrooms are a family favourite superfood! They contain a unique blend of vitamins, minerals and antioxidants that the whole family needs. B group vitamins, copper, potassium, selenium and polyphenols. Plus mushrooms exposed to sunlight naturally generate vitamin D, which is important for healthy bones and teeth and keeping our immune system strong.

Mushrooms contain many important B group vitamins: riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin and folate. B group vitamins are needed for a number of vital body functions:1

  • Help release energy from food (biotin, folate, niacin, riboflavin and pantothenic acid)
  • Act as fatigue fighters (folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin)
  • Help maintain brain function (biotin, folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin)
  • Generate healthy blood (folate, riboflavin)
  • Maintain a strong immune system (folate)
  • Iron transport (riboflavin)
  • Good vision (riboflavin)

Pantothenic acid is involved in many different steps for making neurotransmitters, hormones and haemoglobin. Most interesting for mushrooms is pantothenic acid is involved in making Vitamin D which explains why mushrooms contain it.

Mushrooms contain 22micrograms folate in 100g or 3 button mushrooms. Folate is an important vitamin for women just before pregnancy and in their first trimester when they need 400micrograms of folate. Folate is also important for blood cell formation, production of tissues during pregnancy and normal immune function.1

It is important to eat a wide range of foods during pregnancy that contain folate, foods such as fruit like citrus, vegetables like green leafy vegetables and legumes.

Ground-breaking research at the University of Western Sydney has found there are wide-ranging amounts of active vitamin B12 in mushrooms especially in the outer peel suggesting the B12 is bacteria derived.2 This makes mushrooms the only non-animal fresh food source of B12 – another reason why mushrooms are such a unique food and good for vegans and vegetarians. In general a serve of mushrooms provides just 5% of the daily needs but combined with other vitamin B12 foods such as eggs and dairy can contribute to your daily B12 needs. Check out this Mushroom & Parmesan Omelette recipe >

Vitamin D deficiency is commonplace in Australia with about one third of us having insufficient levels.3 Vitamin D helps make bones strong by assisting calcium absorption. Mushrooms exposed to sunlight naturally generate vitamin D, making mushrooms the only non-animal natural source of vitamin D.4

A 100g serve of mushrooms left in the sun for an hour will generate all your daily needs of vitamin D.4 In some parts of Australia you can buy vitamin D mushrooms. The mushrooms are exposed to a short burst of ultraviolet light after harvesting to generate vitamin D, while retaining the good looks and nutrition of the mushroom. The vitamin D in these enhanced mushrooms is available for absorption and boosts vitamin D levels in the body especially when vitamin D levels are low.4-7

Three button mushrooms provides just over 10% of the RDI for copper. Similar to B group vitamins copper has a vital role to play in energy production, brain function and the immune system. Copper is necessary for iron transport, good skin and hair and is also an antioxidant, protecting cells from free radical damage.1

Selenium is another antioxidant which helps to prevent free radical damage.1 A 100g serve of mushrooms can provide nearly a quarter of your daily needs of selenium. Selenium works with iodine to produce thyroid hormones, plus it’s vital for sperm production.1

Three button mushrooms about 100g will provide 11% of your daily phosphorus needs. The main role of phosphorus is, in combination with calcium, to form the structure of teeth and bones.1 Phosphorus is also needed for energy metabolism and is a critical part of a high-energy compound ATP used during muscle contraction.1

Potassium foods are a must for any amateur athlete or weekend warrior. It plays a major role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance and is needed for nerve and muscle function.1 Mushrooms contain 360mg of potassium per 100g. A healthy, varied diet with plenty of potassium and low in sodium (salt) helps maintain healthy blood pressure.1 High blood pressure is a risk factor for heart disease.

Mushrooms contain a number of antioxidants from vitamins with antioxidant functions such as riboflavin, to antioxidant minerals copper and selenium and other natural antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols and ergothioneine (er-go-thio-neen) which is unique to mushrooms.9

REFERENCES

  1. Food Standards Australia New Zealand Australian Food Standards Code. Schedule 4 Nutrition, health and related claims.
  2. Koyyalamudi SR, et al. Vitamin B12 is the active corrinoid produced in cultivated white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). J Agricultural & Food Chemistry 2009; 57 (14): 6327-6333
  3. Daly RM, et al. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its determinants in Australian adults aged 25 years and older: a national, population-based study. Clinical Endocrinology 2012; 77 (1): 26-35
  4. Cardwell G et al. A Review of Mushrooms as a Potential Source of Dietary Vitamin D. 2018 Oct 13;10(10). pii: E1498. doi: 10.3390/nu10101498.
  5. Cashman KD et al. Effect of Ultraviolet Light-ExposedMushroomson Vitamin D Status: Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Reanalysis of Biobanked Sera from a Randomized Controlled Trial and a Systematic Review plus Meta-Analysis. J Nutr. 2016 Mar;146(3):565-75. doi: 10.3945/jn.115.223784.
  6. Urbain P, et al. Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from UV-B-irradiated button mushrooms in healthy adults deficient in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: a randomised controlled trial. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2011; 65 (8): 965-971.
  7. Mehrota A, et al. Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from enriched mushrooms in prediabetic adults: a randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2014;68(10):1154-60doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.157.
  8. Kalaras MD et al Mushrooms: A rich source of the antioxidantsergothioneine and glutathione. Food Chem. 2017 Oct 15;233:429-433. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.04.109.

Mushrooms contain small amounts of protein, about 2g per 100g, but the types of proteins are unique.1 For example hydrophobins are proteins found only in mushrooms and they contribute to the texture of the mushroom.2 It is the combination of natural glutamates, protein and other natural flavour compounds that make the mushroom texture and flavour so unique.

There is virtually no fat in mushrooms. What there is, is found in the cell walls so mushrooms can store fat-soluble vitamin D. Mushrooms naturally generate vitamin D after they have been exposed to UV light.3

Mushrooms have a low carbohydrate content which means that mushrooms may have little effect on blood glucose levels, making them a good food choice for people with diabetes.4,5

A serve of cooked mushrooms provides around 3g of fibre per 100g serve, which is about 10% of the daily fibre needs of an adult. The fibre in mushrooms is mainly insoluble, the type of fibre that helps to keep bowels regular.

Around 15% of the total dietary fibre in mushrooms is resistant starch type 1.6 Resistant starch acts as a prebiotic because it resists digestion and travels to the large intestine where is becomes food for the healthy bacteria residing there.

The fibre in mushrooms is different to that found in fruits and vegetables, so it helps complement the health benefits of plant fibre. Mushroom fibre includes beta glucans, which have been linked to reducing cholesterol reabsorption in the gut.7,8

Mushrooms are a low kilojoule food with less than 100kJ in 3 button mushrooms. When eaten as part of a healthy diet, mushrooms along with other plants foods are ideal for anyone trying to control their weight.

With its deliciously rich savoury flavour, the mushroom makes an ideal inclusion into both vegetarian and meat dishes. Three button mushrooms is a simple way to boost your nutritional intake for very few kilojoules.

REFERENCES

  1. Xu X, et al. Bioactive proteins from mushrooms. Biotechnology Advances 2011; 29: 667-674
  2. Bayry J et al. Hydrophobins—Unique Fungal Proteins. PLoS Pathog. 2012 May; 8(5): e1002700.
  3. Phillips KM, Rasor AS. A nutritionally meaningful increase in the vitamin D in retail mushrooms is attainable by exposure to sunlight prior to consumption. Nutrition & Food Sciences 2013; 3 (6):
  4. Khatun K et al. Oyster mushroom reduced blood glucoseand cholesterolin diabetic subjects. Mymensingh Med J. 2007 Jan;16(1):94-9.
  5. Sang-Chul Jeong, et al. White button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) intake alters blood glucose and cholesterol levels in diabetic and hyperlipidemic rats. Nutrition Research. 2010; 30(1): 49-56.
  6. Dikeman CL, et al. Effects of stage of maturity and cooking on the chemical composition of selected mushroom varieties. J Agricultural & Food Chemistry 2005; 53: 1130-1138.
  7. Gil-Ramírez A et al. Molecular actions of hypocholesterolaemic compounds from edible mushrooms. Food Funct. 2018 Jan 24;9(1):53-69. doi: 10.1039/c7fo00835j.
  8. Guillamón E et al. Edible mushrooms: role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Fitoterapia. 2010 Oct;81(7):715-23. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2010.06.005.

The unique flavour in mushrooms is known as umami. It’s the natural glutamates that give mushrooms their deliciously rich, savoury flavour that makes them a favourite with meat eaters and vegetarians alike.

One of the best benefits of foods containing glutamate is when they are added to meals, the salt content can be reduced by 30-40% without affecting the taste.1 That means when you add mushrooms to a meal, you can cook with or add less salt. In fact, you may be able to get away with no salt at all and let the flavour of mushrooms do the talking.

The natural free glutamates in mushrooms are not to be confused with the monosodium glutamate (MSG) sometimes added to foods as a flavour enhancer. There is no MSG in mushrooms.

For many years there were four known taste sensations: sweet, sour, salty and bitter. Foods with natural glutamates provided a fifth taste, called umami. Umami is a Japanese term first coined by Kikunae Ikeda, professor of physical chemistry at the University of Tokyo, in 1908. It is the colloquial Japanese term for “tasty”and Professor Ikeda used it to describe the taste of a broth made from seaweed, dried fish and shiitake mushrooms.2

REFERENCES

  1. Mouritsen OG. Umami flavour as a means of regulating food intake and improving nutrition and health. Nutrition & Health 2012; 21 (1): 56-75
  2. Kurihara K. Glutamate: from discovery as a food flavor to role as a basic taste (umami). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009; 90 (suppl): 719S-722S

Gluten is a type of protein found in many grains, such as wheat, rye and barley. Some people have a sensitivity to gluten, such as people with coeliac disease. About one in 70 people in Australia have coeliac disease and many remain undiagnosed.1 Others have gluten sensitivity or want to avoid gluten in their diets for other reasons.

Mushrooms are gluten free. Mushrooms grow in a layer of peat that contains wheat straw and some people have been concerned that the compost could be a source of gluten.

However, there is no gluten in the straw, only in the grain – and grain isn’t used in compost. If you see little specks of compost on the surface of the mushroom, you can just brush it off. There is no need to wash or peel the mushroom.

The Glycemic Index (GI) is the measure of the effect a carbohydrate-containing food has on your blood glucose levels. The effect is an indication of the speed at which the carbohydrate in food is digested into glucose and absorbed into the bloodstream.

Mushrooms have a low carbohydrate level. In fact, it is so low that mushrooms can’t be GI tested so essentially they have a GI of zero. In other words, eating mushrooms has no negative effect on blood glucose levels, something that may be of benefit to people with diabetes.2,3

Diabetes is a common condition where blood glucose levels rise above a normal healthy level. Estimates suggest 1.2million people in Australia have diabetes, with the majority having type 2 diabetes.4,5

The dietary advice for people with diabetes is to eat mainly low GI and minimally processed foods. This includes fruits, vegetables, legumes, mushrooms, lean meats, low-fat dairy, nuts and wholegrain breads and cereal foods. Foods that are the least processed generally have a low to moderate glycemic index rating.

The GI of some common carbohydrate foods are given in the table below.

Low GI Medium GI High GI
Breads, cereals wholegrain bread, sourdough rye, porridge, All-Bran, muesli rye bread, pita bread, sourdough white white breads, flat breads, crispbreads, water crackers
Rice, pasta pasta, spaghetti, noodles, quinoa, buckwheat gnocchi, Arborio rice, Doongara rice, Basmati rice Medium grain, jasmine, sushi rices
Mushrooms All types
Vegetables, legumes carrots, corn, baked beans, chick peas, lentils beetroot, pumpkin, new potatoes sweet potato, potato, swede
Fruit orange, banana, apple, pear pineapple, cherries, raisins watermelon, lychee, processed fruit snacks
Dairy foods milk, yogurt, custard
Snacks nuts, chocolate muesli bars, potato chips confectionery, biscuits, cereal bars
Spreads marmalade, 100% fruit jams honey, golden syrup glucose (syrup), maltose, maltodextrin
Drinks 100% fruit and vegetable juices, milk based drinks some soft drinks/ cordials Sports drinks, oral rehydration drinks

 

NUTRITION INFORMATION PANEL

NUTRITION INFORMATION
Servings per package: 1
Serving size: 100g or 3 button mushrooms

Average Quantity per Serving Percentage Daily Intake* Average Quantity per 100g
Energy 86kJ (20kcal) 1% 86kJ (20kcal)
Protein, total 2.3g 5% 2.3g
Fat, total
– saturated
– trans
– polyunsaturated
– monounsaturated
0.4g
0.1g
3.5mg
0.2g
0g
<1%
<1%
0.4g
0.1g
3.5mg
0.2g
0g
Carbohydrate
– sugars
0.3g
0g
<1%
0%
0.3g
0g
Dietary fibre, total¹
– Resistant starch¹
2.7g
0.4g
9% 2.7g
0.4g
Sodium 9mg <1% 9mg
Potassium 360mg 360mg
Riboflavin (B2)¹ 0.37mg 22% 0.37mg
Niacin 3.8mg eq 38% 3.8mg eq
Pantothenic acid 1.2mg 24% 1.2mg
Biotin 8.5ug 28% 8.5ug
Folate 22ug DFE 11% 22ug DFE
Vitamin B12 0.1ug 0.1ug
Vitamin D (UV enhanced) 24ug 480% 24ug
Vitamin D (std raw) 2ug 20% 24ug
Copper 0.37mg 12% 0.37mg
Phosphorus 110mg 11% 110mg
Selenium 16ug 23% 16ug
Polyphenols² 64mg GAE 64mg GAE
Gluten 0mg 0mg

*based on the average adult diet of 8700kJ
g = grams; mg = milligrams; ug = microgram “<” means less than
Data source: Australian Food Composition Database – Release 1.0
¹ Dikeman 2005 cooked mushroom
² USDA ORAC 2010

BODY BOOSTER

ANTIOXIDANTS

Mushrooms contain a range of valuable antioxidants and have been shown to be one of the highest antioxidant foods on the market. In a study of 30 common vegetables, mushrooms were placed in the top five for highest antioxidant capacity when compared to other vegetables.1 Mushrooms are also the highest dietary source of a unique sulfur-containing antioxidant called ergothioneine (er-go-thio-neen).2 They contain antioxidant vitamins and minerals such as riboflavin, copper and selenium, and polyphenols.3 So it’s not surprisingly eating 100g or just 3 mushrooms a day improves your antioxidant status.4

Antioxidants are natural compounds found in food and they help neutralise free radicals.5,6 Free radicals can cause damage to the body over time, speeding up the ageing process. For example, free radicals can damage the DNA (our genetic blueprint) found in the centre of our body cells. The antioxidants in foods like mushrooms can provide a helping hand to protect the body from the effects of too many free radicals.

CHOLESTEROL AND BLOOD PRESSURE

Mushrooms like vegetables are very low in sodium, high in potassium and are virtually saturated fat free. This makes mushrooms the perfect addition to a healthy diet to help maintain blood pressure and blood cholesterol.7 Research has found eating mushrooms on a daily basis improves total cholesterol levels, triglycerides as well as blood glucose levels.8 Overall mushrooms as part of a healthy diet contribute to our heart health.9

HEALTHY GUT

Mushrooms can help keep your gut healthy. A 100g serve of cooked mushrooms provides around 3g of dietary fibre, which is about 10% of your daily fibre needs.10 The fibre in mushrooms is mainly insoluble, the type that helps keep your bowels regular. Around 15% of the total dietary fibre in mushrooms is resistant starch type 1.10

Resistant starch acts as a prebiotic because it feeds the healthy bacteria in the large intestine or bowel. Consuming mushrooms in place of red meat has been found to positively modify the gut microbiome and improve bowel function.11 Mushrooms also contain glutamates which contribute to their deliciously rich savoury flavour. Glutamates are also a signalling molecule in the nervous system of the gut which can help signal fullness.12,13 Together the fibre and glutamates in mushrooms may help control appetite.

WEIGHT MANAGEMENT

Mushrooms are ideally suited for those watching their weight because they are low in kilojoules. Three button mushrooms (100g) has only 86kJs (20kcals). Mushrooms can also make a meal more filling. Research has found that after consuming a mushroom rich breakfast, people found the mushrooms were more filling and they had reduced hunger following the meal compared to eating red meat for breakfast. Although there was no difference in how much energy was consumed overall after 10 days of eating mushrooms or red meat.14 Another study found overweight people who replaced red meats with at least 450g of button mushrooms a week as part of an energy restricted diet for a year, consumed less energy overall and lost more weight and centimetres around their waists, compared to red meat eaters following an energy restricted diet.15 Mushroom eaters also had reduced blood pressure, total and LDL cholesterol and blood glucose.15

GLOWING SKIN

Three button mushrooms (100g) provides many key nutrients needed for healthy skin, hair or nails: niacin, biotin, copper, and selenium.

Mushrooms exposed to UV light naturally generate vitamin D. Vitamin D plays an important role in keeping skin healthy.16 Around 100g or three button mushrooms placed in the sun for an hour, will generate 100% of your daily vitamin D needs.17 Some farmers are now producing mushrooms with a day’s supply of vitamin D (10-15ug) in a single serve by giving mushrooms a pulse of UV light after harvesting.

REFERENCES

  1. Pellegrini N, et al. Total antioxidant capacity of plant foods, beverages and oils consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays. J Nutrition 2003; 133: 2812-2819 https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/133/9/2812/4688193
  2. Kalaras MD et al Mushrooms: A rich source of the antioxidantsergothioneine and glutathione. Food Chem. 2017 Oct 15;233:429-433. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.04.109. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28530594
  3. USDA Database for the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of Selected Foods, Release 2 2010 (Note only total polyphenol content is used)
  4. Calvo MS et al. A Retrospective Study in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome: Diabetic Risk Factor Response to Daily Consumption of Agaricus bisporus (White Button Mushrooms). Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2016 Sep;71(3):245-51. doi: 10.1007/s11130-016-0552-7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27193019
  5. Savoie JM, et al. Radical-scavenging properties of extracts from the white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. J of the Science of Food & Agriculture 2008; 88: 970-975. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/229729702_Radical-scavenging_properties_of_extracts_from_the_white_button_mushroom_Agaricus_bisporus
  6. Sánchez C et al. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant properties from mushrooms. Synth Syst Biotechnol. 2016 Dec 24;2(1):13-22. doi: 10.1016/j.synbio.2016.12.001. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5625788/
  7. Food Standards Australia New Zealand Australian Food Standards Code. Schedule 4 Nutrition, health and related claims. https://www.legislation.gov.au/Series/F2015L00474
  8. Khatun K et al. Oyster mushroom reduced blood glucoseand cholesterolin diabetic subjects. Mymensingh Med J. 2007 Jan;16(1):94-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17344789
  9. Guillamón E, et al. Edible mushrooms: role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Fitoterapia 2010; 81 (7): 715-723https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20550954
  10. Dikeman CL, et al. Effects of stage of maturity and cooking on the chemical composition of selected mushroom varieties. J Agricultural & Food Chemistry 2005; 53: 1130-1138.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15713030
  11. Hess J et al. Impact of Agaricus bisporus MushroomConsumption on Gut Health Markers in Healthy Adults. Nutrients. 2018 Oct 2;10(10). pii: E1402. doi: 10.3390/nu10101402. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213353/
  12. Uneyama H et al. Physiological role of dietary free glutamatein the food digestion. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:372-5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18296382
  13. Masic U et al. Umami flavor enhances appetite but also increases satiety. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Aug;100(2):532-8. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.080929. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24944058
  14. Hess JM et al. Impact of Agaricus bisporus mushroom consumption on satietyand food intake. Appetite. 2017 Oct 1;117:179-185. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.021. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28647383
  15. Poddar KH, et al. Positive effect of mushrooms substituted for meat on body weight, body composition, and health parameters. A 1-year randomized clinical trial. Appetite 2013; 71: 379-387https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24056209
  16. MostafaW Z et al. Vitamin D and the skin: Focus on a complex relationship: A review. J Adv Res 2015 Nov; 6(6): 793–804. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4642156/
  17. Phillips KM, Rasor AS. A nutritionally meaningful increase in the vitamin D in retail mushrooms is attainable by exposure to sunlight prior to consumption. Nutrition & Food Sciences 2013; 3 (6): http://omicsonline.org/a-nutritionally-meaningful-increase-in-vitamin-d-in-retail-mushrooms-is-attainable-by-exposure-to-sunlight-prior-to-consumption-2155-9600.1000236.pdf

 

VITAMINS & MINERALS

Mushrooms are a family favourite superfood! They contain a unique blend of vitamins, minerals and antioxidants that the whole family needs. B group vitamins, copper, potassium, selenium and polyphenols. Plus mushrooms exposed to sunlight naturally generate vitamin D, which is important for healthy bones and teeth and keeping our immune system strong.

B Vitamins

Mushrooms contain many important B group vitamins: riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin and folate. B group vitamins are needed for a number of vital body functions:1

  • Help release energy from food (biotin, folate, niacin, riboflavin and pantothenic acid)
  • Act as fatigue fighters (folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin)
  • Help maintain brain function (biotin, folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin)
  • Generate healthy blood (folate, riboflavin)
  • Maintain a strong immune system (folate)
  • Iron transport (riboflavin)
  • Good vision (riboflavin)

Pantothenic acid is involved in many different steps for making neurotransmitters, hormones and haemoglobin. Most interesting for mushrooms is pantothenic acid is involved in making Vitamin D which explains why mushrooms contain it. .

Folate

Mushrooms contain 22micrograms folate in 100g or 3 button mushrooms. Folate is an important vitamin for women just before pregnancy and in their first trimester when they need 400micrograms of folate. Folate is also important for blood cell formation, production of tissues during pregnancy and normal immune function.1 It is important to eat a wide range of foods during pregnancy that contain folate, foods such as fruit like citrus, vegetables like green leafy vegetables and legumes.

Vitamin B12

Ground-breaking research at the University of Western Sydney has found there are wide-ranging amounts of active vitamin B12 in mushrooms especially in the outer peel suggesting the B12 is bacteria derived.2 This makes mushrooms the only non-animal fresh food source of B12 – another reason why mushrooms are such a unique food and good for vegans and vegetarians. In general a serve of mushrooms provides just 5% of the daily needs but combined with other vitamin B12 foods such as eggs and dairy can contribute to your daily B12 needs. Check out this Mushroom & Parmesan Omelette recipe >

Vitamin D

Vitamin D deficiency is commonplace in Australia with about one third of us having insufficient levels.3 Vitamin D helps make bones strong by assisting calcium absorption. Mushrooms exposed to sunlight naturally generate vitamin D, making mushrooms the only non-animal natural source of vitamin D.4 A 100g serve of mushrooms left in the sun for an hour will generate all your daily needs of vitamin D.4 In some parts of Australia you can buy vitamin D mushrooms. The mushrooms are exposed to a short burst of ultraviolet light after harvesting to generate vitamin D, while retaining the good looks and nutrition of the mushroom. The vitamin D in these enhanced mushrooms is available for absorption and boosts vitamin D levels in the body especially when vitamin D levels are low.4-7

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Copper

Three button mushrooms provides just over 10% of the RDI for copper. Similar to B group vitamins copper has a vital role to play in energy production, brain function and the immune system. Copper is necessary for iron transport, good skin and hair and is also an antioxidant, protecting cells from free radical damage.1

Selenium

Selenium is another antioxidant which helps to prevent free radical damage.1 A 100g serve of mushrooms can provide nearly a quarter of your daily needs of selenium. Selenium works with iodine to produce thyroid hormones, plus it’s vital for sperm production.1

Phosphorus

Three button mushrooms about 100g will provide 11% of your daily phosphorus needs. The main role of phosphorus is, in combination with calcium, to form the structure of teeth and bones.1 Phosphorus is also needed for energy metabolism and is a critical part of a high-energy compound ATP used during muscle contraction.1

Potassium

Potassium foods are a must for any amateur athlete or weekend warrior. It plays a major role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance and is needed for nerve and muscle function.1 Mushrooms contain 360mg of potassium per 100g. A healthy, varied diet with plenty of potassium and low in sodium (salt) helps maintain healthy blood pressure.1 High blood pressure is a risk factor for heart disease.

ANTIOXIDANTS

Mushrooms contain a number of antioxidants from vitamins with antioxidant functions such as riboflavin, to antioxidant minerals copper and selenium and other natural antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols and ergothioneine (er-go-thio-neen) which is unique to mushrooms.9

REFERENCES

  1. Food Standards Australia New Zealand Australian Food Standards Code. Schedule 4 Nutrition, health and related claims. https://www.legislation.gov.au/Series/F2015L00474
  2. Koyyalamudi SR, et al. Vitamin B12 is the active corrinoid produced in cultivated white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). J Agricultural & Food Chemistry 2009; 57 (14): 6327-6333https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19552428
  3. Daly RM, et al. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its determinants in Australian adults aged 25 years and older: a national, population-based study. Clinical Endocrinology 2012; 77 (1): 26-35. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22168576
  4. Cardwell G et al. A Review of Mushrooms as a Potential Source of Dietary Vitamin D. 2018 Oct 13;10(10). pii: E1498. doi: 10.3390/nu10101498. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213178/
  5. Cashman KD et al. Effect of Ultraviolet Light-ExposedMushroomson Vitamin D Status: Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Reanalysis of Biobanked Sera from a Randomized Controlled Trial and a Systematic Review plus Meta-Analysis. J Nutr. 2016 Mar;146(3):565-75. doi: 10.3945/jn.115.223784. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26865648
  6. Urbain P, et al. Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from UV-B-irradiated button mushrooms in healthy adults deficient in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: a randomised controlled trial. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2011; 65 (8): 965-971.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21540874
  7. Mehrota A, et al. Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from enriched mushrooms in prediabetic adults: a randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2014;68(10):1154-60doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.157.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25117997
  8. Kalaras MD et al Mushrooms: A rich source of the antioxidantsergothioneine and glutathione. Food Chem. 2017 Oct 15;233:429-433. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.04.109. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28530594

 

PROTEIN & CARBOHYDRATES

PROTEIN

Mushrooms contain small amounts of protein, about 2g per 100g, but the types of proteins are unique.1 For example hydrophobins are proteins found only in mushrooms and they contribute to the texture of the mushroom.2 It is the combination of natural glutamates, protein and other natural flavour compounds that make the mushroom texture and flavour so unique.

Fat

There is virtually no fat in mushrooms. What there is, is found in the cell walls so mushrooms can store fat-soluble vitamin D. Mushrooms naturally generate vitamin D after they have been exposed to UV light.3

CARBOHYDRATE

Mushrooms have a low carbohydrate content which means that mushrooms may have little effect on blood glucose levels, making them a good food choice for people with diabetes.4,5

FIBRE

A serve of cooked mushrooms provides around 3g of fibre per 100g serve, which is about 10% of the daily fibre needs of an adult. The fibre in mushrooms is mainly insoluble, the type of fibre that helps to keep bowels regular.

Around 15% of the total dietary fibre in mushrooms is resistant starch type 1.6 Resistant starch acts as a prebiotic because it resists digestion and travels to the large intestine where is becomes food for the healthy bacteria residing there.

The fibre in mushrooms is different to that found in fruits and vegetables, so it helps complement the health benefits of plant fibre. Mushroom fibre includes beta glucans, which have been linked to reducing cholesterol reabsorption in the gut.7,8

KILOJOULES

Mushrooms are a low kilojoule food with less than 100kJ in 3 button mushrooms. When eaten as part of a healthy diet, mushrooms along with other plants foods are ideal for anyone trying to control their weight.

With its deliciously rich savoury flavour, the mushroom makes an ideal inclusion into both vegetarian and meat dishes. Three button mushrooms is a simple way to boost your nutritional intake for very few kilojoules.

REFERENCES

  1. Xu X, et al. Bioactive proteins from mushrooms. Biotechnology Advances 2011; 29: 667-674https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21605654
  2. Bayry J et al. Hydrophobins—Unique Fungal Proteins. PLoS Pathog. 2012 May; 8(5): e1002700. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3364958/
  3. Phillips KM, Rasor AS. A nutritionally meaningful increase in the vitamin D in retail mushrooms is attainable by exposure to sunlight prior to consumption. Nutrition & Food Sciences 2013; 3 (6): http://omicsonline.org/a-nutritionally-meaningful-increase-in-vitamin-d-in-retail-mushrooms-is-attainable-by-exposure-to-sunlight-prior-to-consumption-2155-9600.1000236.pdf
  4. Khatun K et al. Oyster mushroom reduced blood glucoseand cholesterolin diabetic subjects. Mymensingh Med J. 2007 Jan;16(1):94-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17344789
  5. Sang-Chul Jeong, et al. White button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) intake alters blood glucose and cholesterol levels in diabetic and hyperlipidemic rats. Nutrition Research. 2010; 30(1): 49-56.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20116660
  6. Dikeman CL, et al. Effects of stage of maturity and cooking on the chemical composition of selected mushroom varieties. J Agricultural & Food Chemistry 2005; 53: 1130-1138.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15713030
  7. Gil-Ramírez A et al. Molecular actions of hypocholesterolaemic compounds from edible mushrooms. Food Funct. 2018 Jan 24;9(1):53-69. doi: 10.1039/c7fo00835j. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29177335
  8. Guillamón E et al. Edible mushrooms: role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Fitoterapia. 2010 Oct;81(7):715-23. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2010.06.005. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20550954

 

UNIQUE FLAVOUR = LESS SALT

THE UNIQUE MUSHROOM FLAVOUR

The unique flavour in mushrooms is known as umami. It’s the natural glutamates that give mushrooms their deliciously rich, savoury flavour that makes them a favourite with meat eaters and vegetarians alike.

One of the best benefits of foods containing glutamate is when they are added to meals, the salt content can be reduced by 30-40% without affecting the taste.1 That means when you add mushrooms to a meal, you can cook with or add less salt. In fact, you may be able to get away with no salt at all and let the flavour of mushrooms do the talking.

The natural free glutamates in mushrooms are not to be confused with the monosodium glutamate (MSG) sometimes added to foods as a flavour enhancer. There is no MSG in mushrooms.

 

UMAMI

For many years there were four known taste sensations: sweet, sour, salty and bitter. Foods with natural glutamates provided a fifth taste, called umami. Umami is a Japanese term first coined by Kikunae Ikeda, professor of physical chemistry at the University of Tokyo, in 1908. It is the colloquial Japanese term for “tasty”and Professor Ikeda used it to describe the taste of a broth made from seaweed, dried fish and shiitake mushrooms.2

REFERENCES

  1. Mouritsen OG. Umami flavour as a means of regulating food intake and improving nutrition and health. Nutrition & Health 2012; 21 (1): 56-75https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22544776
  2. Kurihara K. Glutamate: from discovery as a food flavor to role as a basic taste (umami). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009; 90 (suppl): 719S-722Shttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19640953

 

GLUTEN FREE & LOW GI

GLUTEN FREE

Gluten is a type of protein found in many grains, such as wheat, rye and barley. Some people have a sensitivity to gluten, such as people with coeliac disease. About one in 70 people in Australia have coeliac disease and many remain undiagnosed.1 Others have gluten sensitivity or want to avoid gluten in their diets for other reasons.

Mushrooms are gluten free. Mushrooms grow in a layer of peat that contains wheat straw and some people have been concerned that the compost could be a source of gluten.

However, there is no gluten in the straw, only in the grain - and grain isn’t used in compost. If you see little specks of compost on the surface of the mushroom, you can just brush it off. There is no need to wash or peel the mushroom.

LOW GLYCEMIC INDEX

The Glycemic Index (GI) is the measure of the effect a carbohydrate-containing food has on your blood glucose levels. The effect is an indication of the speed at which the carbohydrate in food is digested into glucose and absorbed into the bloodstream.

Mushrooms have a low carbohydrate level. In fact, it is so low that mushrooms can’t be GI tested so essentially they have a GI of zero. In other words, eating mushrooms has no negative effect on blood glucose levels, something that may be of benefit to people with diabetes.2,3

Diabetes is a common condition where blood glucose levels rise above a normal healthy level. Estimates suggest 1.2million people in Australia have diabetes, with the majority having type 2 diabetes.4,5

The dietary advice for people with diabetes is to eat mainly low GI and minimally processed foods. This includes fruits, vegetables, legumes, mushrooms, lean meats, low-fat dairy, nuts and wholegrain breads and cereal foods. Foods that are the least processed generally have a low to moderate glycemic index rating.

The GI of some common carbohydrate foods are given in the table below.

Low GI Medium GI High GI
Breads, cereals wholegrain bread, sourdough rye, porridge, All-Bran, muesli rye bread, pita bread, sourdough white white breads, flat breads, crispbreads, water crackers
Rice, pasta pasta, spaghetti, noodles, quinoa, buckwheat gnocchi, Arborio rice, Doongara rice, Basmati rice Medium grain, jasmine, sushi rices
Mushrooms All types
Vegetables, legumes carrots, corn, baked beans, chick peas, lentils beetroot, pumpkin, new potatoes sweet potato, potato, swede
Fruit orange, banana, apple, pear pineapple, cherries, raisins watermelon, lychee, processed fruit snacks
Dairy foods milk, yogurt, custard
Snacks nuts, chocolate muesli bars, potato chips confectionery, biscuits, cereal bars
Spreads marmalade, 100% fruit jams honey, golden syrup glucose (syrup), maltose, maltodextrin
Drinks 100% fruit and vegetable juices, milk based drinks some soft drinks/ cordials Sports drinks, oral rehydration drinks

 

 

REFERENCES

  1. https://www.coeliac.org.au/coeliac-disease/#Coeliac3
  2. Khatun K et al. Oyster mushroom reduced blood glucoseand cholesterolin diabetic subjects. Mymensingh Med J. 2007 Jan;16(1):94-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17344789
  3. Sang-Chul Jeong, et al. White button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) intake alters blood glucose and cholesterol levels in diabetic and hyperlipidemic rats. Nutrition Research. 2010; 30(1): 49-56.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20116660
  4. https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/diabetes/diabetes-snapshot/contents/how-many-australians-have-diabetes
  5. https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/diabetes/diabetes-snapshot/contents/how-many-australians-have-diabetes/type-2-diabetes

 

NUTRITION INFORMATION

 

NUTRITION INFORMATION PANEL

NUTRITION INFORMATION
Servings per package: 1
Serving size: 100g or 3 button mushrooms

Average Quantity per Serving % Daily Intake* Average Quantity per 100g
Energy 86kJ (20kcal) 1% 86kJ (20kcal)
Protein, total 2.3g 5% 2.3g
Fat, total
– saturated
– trans
– poly
– mono
0.4g
0.1g
3.5mg
0.2g
0g
<1%
<1%
0.4g
0.1g
3.5mg
0.2g
0g
Carbohydrate
– sugars
0.3g
0g
<1%
0%
0.3g
0g
Dietary fibre, total¹
- Resistant starch¹
2.7g
0.4g
9% 2.7g
0.4g
Sodium 9mg <1% 9mg
Potassium 360mg 360mg
Riboflavin (B2)¹ 0.37mg 22% 0.37mg
Niacin 3.8mg eq 38% 3.8mg eq
Pantothenic acid 1.2mg 24% 1.2mg
Biotin 8.5ug 28% 8.5ug
Folate 22ug DFE 11% 22ug DFE
Vitamin B12 0.1ug 0.1ug
Vitamin D (UV enhanced) 24ug 480% 24ug
Vitamin D (std raw) 2ug 20% 24ug
Copper 0.37mg 12% 0.37mg
Phosphorus 110mg 11% 110mg
Selenium 16ug 23% 16ug
Polyphenols² 64mg GAE 64mg GAE
Gluten 0mg 0mg

 

*based on the average adult diet of 8700kJ
g = grams; mg = milligrams; ug = microgram “<” means less than
Data source: Australian Food Composition Database - Release 1.0
¹ Dikeman 2005 cooked mushroom
² USDA ORAC 2010

 

 

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