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ON THE INSIDE

Health and Nutrition

 

 

RICH

in vitamins
and minerals

Mushrooms are rich in essential vitamins and minerals, such as Vitamin D, riboflavin and selenium. Mushrooms are known for their antioxidant properties and contain a wide range of valuable antioxidants.

 

 

 

SUPER

little package

Mushrooms contain a unique bundle of protein, carbohydrates and fibre, all in a tasty little package.

Plus they are low in fat, sodium and kilojoules.

THE FACTS

at a glance

 

 

 

immunity

BOOST

Adding mushrooms to your diet can help boost immunity, give your skin a healthy glow, keep your heart healthy and more!

 

 

packed
full of

FLAVOUR

Mushrooms have a deliciously rich ‘umami’ flavour, which can replace some of the salt used in recipes.

 

 

naturally

GLUTEN
FREE

Mushrooms are naturally gluten free, help keep blood glucose levels normal and have a very low GI – so they are delicious option for people with diabetes or following a gluten-free diet.

THE FACTS

at a glance

 

 

RICH

in vitamins
and minerals

Mushrooms are rich in essential vitamins and minerals, such as Vitamin D, riboflavin and selenium. They are one of the highest antioxidant foods on the market.

 

 

 

SUPER

little package

Mushrooms contain a unique bundle of protein, carbohydrates and fibre, all in a tasty little package.

Plus they are low in fat, sodium and kilojoules.

 

 

 

immunity

BOOST

Adding mushrooms to your diet can help boost immunity, give your skin a healthy glow, keep your heart healthy and more!

 

 

packed
full of

FLAVOUR

Mushrooms have a deliciously rich ‘umami’ flavour, which can replace some of the salt used in recipes.

 

 

naturally

GLUTEN
FREE

Mushrooms are naturally gluten free, help keep blood glucose levels normal and have a very low GI – so they are delicious option for people with diabetes or following a gluten-free diet.

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Mushrooms are known for their antioxidant properties and contain a wide range of valuable antioxidants.1 In a study comparing 30 common vegetables, mushrooms were placed in the top five vegetables with the highest antioxidant capacity.2 Mushrooms are also the highest dietary source of a unique sulfur-containing antioxidant called ergothioneine (er-go-thio-neen).3 They contain antioxidant vitamins and minerals such as riboflavin, copper and selenium, and polyphenols.4 (See Nutrition Information tab) So it’s not surprising eating 100g (about 3 cup, 5-7 button or 1 portabella) mushrooms a day improved antioxidant status.5

Antioxidants are natural compounds found in food and they help neutralise free radicals.6,7 Free radicals can cause damage to the body over time, speeding up the ageing process. For example, free radicals can damage the DNA (our genetic blueprint) found in the centre of our cells. Antioxidants in foods like mushrooms can help to protect the body from the damaging effects of free radicals, which can be produced as by-products of metabolism, or come from environmental stresses such as air pollution or smoking.8

Mushrooms like vegetables are very low in sodium, a source of potassium, and virtually saturated fat free. (See Nutrition Information tab) This makes mushrooms the perfect addition to a healthy diet to help maintain blood pressure and blood cholesterol.9 In one study, persons with diabetes who ate oyster mushrooms on a daily basis over a week had a reduction in their total cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure and blood glucose levels.10 Mushrooms as part of a healthy diet may contribute to our heart health.11

Mushrooms contain prebiotics, a type of fibre, that may help to support a healthy gut.12 In a study on white button mushrooms, there were 3 grams of dietary fibre in a 100 gram serve of mushrooms, which is about 10% of your daily fibre needs.13 The fibre in mushrooms is mainly insoluble, the type that helps keep your bowels regular.14 In one study on white button, cremini, portabella and enoki mushrooms, around 15% of the total dietary fibre was found to be resistant starch.13 Resistant starch acts as a prebiotic because it resists digestion and becomes food for the healthy bacteria residing in the large intestine or bowel. Consuming 226g white button mushrooms in replacement of red meat each day for 10 days was shown to have a positive effect on the gut microbiome and improved bowel function in individuals.15 Mushrooms also contain glutamates which contribute to their deliciously rich savoury flavour.16 Glutamates are also a signalling molecule in the nervous system of the gut which help can signal fullness.17,18 Together the fibre and glutamates in mushrooms may help control appetite.19

Mushrooms are low in kilojoules, making them ideally suited for those watching their calorie intake. 100g (about 3 cup, 5-7 button or 1 portabella) mushrooms has only 86kJs (20kcals) (See Nutrition Information tab). Mushrooms can also make a meal more filling. In one study, consuming 226 grams of mushrooms at breakfast increased feelings of fullness and reduced hunger after the meal, compared to eating a similar amount of energy from red meat (28g).20 Another study found that in overweight people who replaced red meats with at least 450g of button mushrooms a week in an energy restricted diet for a year, they consistently ate less energy overall and lost more weight and centimetres around their waists compared to those who also followed an energy restricted diet but ate red meat.21 Mushroom eaters also had reduced blood pressure, total and LDL cholesterol and blood glucose, compared to the meat-eating group.21

100g (about 3 cup, 5-7 button or 1 portabella) mushrooms provides a number of essential nutrients needed for healthy skin, hair or nails: niacin, biotin, copper, and selenium. (See Nutrition Information tab)

Mushrooms exposed to UV light naturally generate vitamin D.22 Vitamin D has an important role in keeping the skin healthy too.23 Around 100g (about 3 cup, 5-7 button or 1 portabella) mushrooms in the sun for 15 minutes will generate 100% of your daily vitamin D needs in most places in Australia.24,25 Some farmers are now producing mushrooms with a day’s supply of vitamin D (10-15ug) in a single serve by giving mushrooms a pulse of UV light after harvesting.26

REFERENCES

  1. Kozarski et al. Antioxidants of edible mushrooms. Molecules 2015;20(10):19489-525
  2. Pellegrini N, et al. Total antioxidant capacity of plant foods, beverages and oils consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays. J Nutrition 2003; 133: 2812-2819 https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/133/9/2812/4688193
  3. Kalaras MD et al Mushrooms: A rich source of the antioxidants ergothioneine and glutathione. Food Chem. 2017 Oct 15;233:429-433. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.04.109. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28530594
  4. USDA Database for the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of Selected Foods, Release 2 2010 (Note only total polyphenol content is used)
  5. Calvo MS et al. A Retrospective Study in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome: Diabetic Risk Factor Response to Daily Consumption of Agaricus bisporus (White Button Mushrooms). Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2016 Sep;71(3):245-51. doi: 10.1007/s11130-016-0552-7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27193019
  6. Savoie JM, et al. Radical-scavenging properties of extracts from the white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. J of the Science of Food & Agriculture 2008; 88: 970-975.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/229729702_Radical-scavenging_properties_of_extracts_from_the_white_button_mushroom_Agaricus_bisporus
  7. Sánchez C et al. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant properties from mushrooms. Synth Syst Biotechnol. 2016 Dec 24;2(1):13-22. doi: 10.1016/j.synbio.2016.12.001. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5625788/
  8. Better Health Channel. Antioxidants. Available from: https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/healthyliving/antioxidants
  9. Food Standards Australia New Zealand Australian Food Standards Code. Schedule 4 Nutrition, health and related claims. https://www.legislation.gov.au/Series/F2015L00474
  10. Jayachandran et al. A critical review on health promoting benefits of edible mushrooms through gut microbiota. Int J Mol Sci 2017 Sept;18(9):1934
  11. Khatun K et al. Oyster mushroom reduced blood glucose and cholesterol in diabetic subjects. Mymensingh Med J. 2007 Jan;16(1):94-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17344789
  12. Guillamón E, et al. Edible mushrooms: role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Fitoterapia 2010; 81 (7): 715-723 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20550954
  13. Dikeman CL, et al. Effects of stage of maturity and cooking on the chemical composition of selected mushroom varieties. J Agricultural & Food Chemistry 2005; 53: 1130-1138. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15713030
  14. Cheung PCK. Mini-review on edible mushrooms as a source of dietary fibre: Preparation and health benefits. Food Sci Human Wellness 2013;2(3-4):162-6. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213453013000426
  15. Hess J et al. Impact of Agaricus bisporus Mushroom Consumption on Gut Health Markers in Healthy Adults. Nutrients. 2018 Oct 2;10(10). pii: E1402. doi: 10.3390/nu10101402. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213353/
  16. Zhang et al, Recent developments on umami ingredients of edible mushrooms – A review. Trends in Food Sci & tech, 2013;33(2):78-92 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0924224413001611
  17. Uneyama H et al. Physiological role of dietary free glutamate in the food digestion. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:372-5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18296382
  18. Masic U et al. Umami flavor enhances appetite but also increases satiety. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Aug;100(2):532-8. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.080929. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24944058
  19. Delgado TC. Glutamate and GABA in appetite regulation. Front Endocrin (Lausanne). 2013; 4: 103 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744050/.
  20. Hess JM et al. Impact of Agaricus bisporus mushroom consumption on satiety and food intake. Appetite. 2017 Oct 1;117:179-185. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.021. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28647383
  21. Poddar KH, et al. Positive effect of mushrooms substituted for meat on body weight, body composition, and health parameters. A 1-year randomized clinical trial. Appetite 2013; 71: 379-387https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24056209
  22. Cardwell G et al. A Review of Mushrooms as a Potential Source of Dietary Vitamin D. Nutrients. 2018 Oct 13;10(10). pii: E1498. doi: 10.3390/nu10101498. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213178
  23. Mostafa W Z et al. Vitamin D and the skin: Focus on a complex relationship: A review. J Adv Res 2015 Nov; 6(6): 793–804. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4642156/
  24. Simon RR. Vitamin D mushrooms: comparison of the composition of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) treated post harvest with UVB light or sunlight. J Agric Food Chem. 2011; 59(16):8724-32 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21736377
  25. Phillips KM, Rasor AS. A nutritionally meaningful increase in the vitamin D in retail mushrooms is attainable by exposure to sunlight prior to consumption. Nutrition & Food Sciences 2013; 3 (6): http://omicsonline.org/a-nutritionally-meaningful-increase-in-vitamin-d-in-retail-mushrooms-is-attainable-by-exposure-to-sunlight-prior-to-consumption-2155-9600.1000236.pdf
  26. Koyyalamudi et al, Concentration of vitamin D2 in white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) exposed to pulsed UV light. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 2011; 14: 976-9.

Mushrooms are a family favourite superfood! They contain a unique blend of vitamins, minerals and antioxidants that the whole family needs. B group vitamins, copper, potassium, selenium and polyphenols.1 Plus mushrooms exposed to sunlight naturally generate vitamin D, which is important for healthy bones and teeth and keeping our immune system strong.2

Mushrooms contain many important B group vitamins: riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin. (See Nutrition Information tab) B group vitamins contribute to a number of vital body functions, as part of a healthy balanced diet:3

• Help release energy from food (biotin, niacin, riboflavin and pantothenic acid)
• Reduce fatigue (folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin)
• Help maintain brain function (biotin, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin)
• Generate healthy blood (riboflavin)
• Assist with iron transport (riboflavin)
• Maintain good vision (riboflavin)

Pantothenic acid is involved in many different steps for making neurotransmitters, hormones and haemoglobin. Most interesting, mushrooms are a source of pantothenic acid, which is essential for energy production, as part of a healthy balanced diet. (See Vitamin D tab).

Mushrooms contain 22 micrograms of folate in 100g (about 3 cup, 5-7 button or 1 portabella) mushrooms. (See Nutrition Information tab) Folate is an important vitamin for women just before they fall pregnant and in the first trimester when they need 400 micrograms of folate per day. Folate is also important for blood cell formation, production of tissues during pregnancy and normal immune function.3 It is important to eat a wide range of foods during pregnancy that contain folate or folic acid, such as citrus fruits, vegetables like green leafy vegetables, legumes, nuts and fortified grains such as breads and breakfast cereals. Click here for delicious mushroom recipes!

Ground-breaking research at the University of Western Sydney has found there are wide-ranging amounts of active vitamin B12 in button, cup and flat mushrooms. As vitamin B12 in mushrooms is especially found in the outer peel, it suggests the B12 is bacteria derived.4 This makes mushrooms the only non-animal fresh food source of B12 – another reason why mushrooms are such a unique food and ideal for vegans and vegetarians.5 A 100g serve of mushrooms may contribute up to 5% of your daily Vitamin B12 requirements. (See Nutrition Information tab) Click here for a delicious mushroom recipe! 

Vitamin D deficiency is commonplace in Australia with about one third of us having insufficient levels.6 Vitamin D helps make bones strong by assisting with calcium absorption. Mushrooms exposed to sunlight naturally generate vitamin D, making mushrooms one of the only non-animal natural sources of vitamin D.7 A 100g serve of mushrooms left in the sun for 15 minutes can generate 100% of your daily needs of vitamin D.7-9 Only 15 minutes of sunlight exposure is needed, meaning your mushrooms can still retain most of their good looks, flavour and nutrition.10 In some parts of Australia, you can buy vitamin D mushrooms. The vitamin D in these enhanced mushrooms is available for absorption and boosts vitamin D levels in the body especially when vitamin D levels are low.11-13

100g (about 3 cup, 5-7 button or 1 portabella) mushrooms provide over 20% of your daily needs for copper. (See Nutrition Information tab) Similar to the B group vitamins, copper plays a vital role in energy production, brain function and the immune system. Copper is necessary for iron transport, maintaining normal skin and hair colouration, and is also an antioxidant, which protects cells from free radical damage.3

Selenium is another essential mineral that is an antioxidant, and helps to prevent free radical damage.3 A 100g serve of mushrooms can provide nearly a quarter of your daily needs of selenium (See Nutrition Information tab). Selenium works with iodine to produce thyroid hormones, plus it’s vital for sperm production.3

100g (about 3 cup, 5-7 button or 1 portabella) mushrooms will provide 11% of your daily phosphorus needs (See Nutrition Information tab). The main role of phosphorus, in combination with calcium, is to form the basic structure of teeth and bones.3 Phosphorus is also needed for energy metabolism and is a critical part of a high-energy compound called ATP that is used during muscle contraction.3

Potassium foods are a must for any amateur athlete or weekend warrior. It plays a major role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance and is needed for nerve and muscle function.3 Mushrooms contain 360mg of potassium per 100g (See Nutrition Information tab). A healthy, varied diet with plenty of potassium and low in sodium (salt) helps maintain healthy blood pressure.3 High blood pressure is a risk factor for heart disease.

Mushrooms contain a number of antioxidants from vitamins and minerals with antioxidant functions such as riboflavin, copper and selenium and other natural bioactive compounds such as polyphenols and ergothioneine (er-go-thio-neen) which is unique to mushrooms.14 (See Nutrition Information tab)

REFERENCES

  1. Dubost et al. Quantification of polyphenols and ergothioneine in cultivated mushrooms and correlation to total antioxidant capacity. Anal Nutr & Clin Methods. 2007; 105(2): 727-35 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814607000659
  2. Cardwell G et al. A Review of Mushrooms as a Potential Source of Dietary Vitamin D. Nutrients. 2018 Oct 13;10(10). pii: E1498. doi: 10.3390/nu10101498
  3. Food Standards Australia New Zealand Australian Food Standards Code. Schedule 4 Nutrition, health and related claims. https://www.legislation.gov.au/Series/F2015L00474
  4. Koyyalamudi SR, et al. Vitamin B12 is the active corrinoid produced in cultivated white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). J Agricultural & Food Chemistry 2009; 57 (14): 6327-6333https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19552428
  5. Watanabe F et al. Vitamin B-12 containing food sources for vegetarians. Nutrients. 2014; 6(5): 1861-73 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4042564/
  6. Daly RM, et al. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its determinants in Australian adults aged 25 years and older: a national, population-based study. Clinical Endocrinology 2012; 77 (1): 26-35. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22168576
  7. Cardwell G et al. A Review of Mushrooms as a Potential Source of Dietary Vitamin D. Nutrients. 2018 Oct 13;10(10). pii: E1498. doi: 10.3390/nu10101498. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213178/
  8. Simon RR. Vitamin D mushrooms: comparison of the composition of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) treated post harvest with UVB light or sunlight. J Agric Food Chem. 2011; 59(16):8724-32 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21736377
  9. National Health and Medical Research Council. Nutrient Reference Values – Vitamin D. https://www.nrv.gov.au/nutrients/vitamin-d
  10. Kalaras MD et al. Effects of post-harvest pulsed UV light treatment of white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) on vitamin D2 content and quality attributes. J Agric Food Chem. 2012; 60(1):220-5
  11. Cashman KD et al. Effect of Ultraviolet Light-Exposed Mushrooms on Vitamin D Status: Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Reanalysis of Biobanked Sera from a Randomized Controlled Trial and a Systematic Review plus Meta-Analysis. J Nutr. 2016 Mar;146(3):565-75. doi: 10.3945/jn.115.223784. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26865648
  12. Urbain P, et al. Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from UV-B-irradiated button mushrooms in healthy adults deficient in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: a randomised controlled trial. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2011; 65 (8): 965-971. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21540874
  13. Mehrota A, et al. Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from enriched mushrooms in prediabetic adults: a randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2014;68(10):1154-60 doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.157.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25117997
  14. Kalaras MD et al Mushrooms: A rich source of the antioxidants ergothioneine and glutathione. Food Chem. 2017 Oct 15;233:429-433. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.04.109. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28530594

Mushrooms contain a small amount of protein, about 2g per 100g (see Nutrition Information tab), but the types of protein are unique.1 For example, hydrophobins are proteins found only in mushrooms and they contribute to the texture of the mushroom.2 This protein along with the natural glutamates and other natural flavour compounds make mushroom’s texture and flavour so unique.3

There is virtually no fat in mushrooms, (see Nutrition Information tab) and what there is, is found in the cell wall, so mushrooms can store fat-soluble vitamin D.4 Mushrooms naturally generate vitamin D after they have been exposed to UV light.5

Mushrooms have a low carbohydrate content (see Nutrition Information tab) which means that mushrooms may have little effect on blood glucose levels, which could make them a good food choice for people with diabetes.6,7

In a study on white button mushrooms, there were 3 grams of dietary fibre in a 100g serve (see Nutrition Information tab), which is about 10% of your daily fibre needs.8 The fibre in mushrooms is mainly insoluble, the type of fibre that helps to keep bowels regular.9
Around 15% of the total dietary fibre in mushrooms is resistant starch.8 Resistant starch acts as a prebiotic because it resists digestion and travels to the large intestine where it becomes food for the healthy bacteria residing there.

The fibre in mushrooms is different to that found in fruits and vegetables, so it helps complement the health benefits of plant fibre.9 Mushroom fibre includes beta glucans, which have been linked to reducing cholesterol reabsorption in the gut.10,11

Mushrooms are a low kilojoule food with less than 100kJ per 100g (about 3 cup, 5-7 button or 1 portabella) mushrooms (see Nutrition Information tab). When eaten as part of a healthy diet, mushrooms along with non-starchy plant foods can be great for those trying to monitor their calorie intake.

With its deliciously rich savoury flavour, the mushroom makes an ideal inclusion into both vegetarian and meat dishes. 100g (about 3 cup, 5-7 button or 1 portabella) mushrooms is a simple way to boost your nutritional intake for very few kilojoules. Click here for delicious mushroom recipes!

REFERENCES

  1. Xu X, et al. Bioactive proteins from mushrooms. Biotechnology Advances 2011; 29: 667-674https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21605654
  2. Bayry J et al. Hydrophobins—Unique Fungal Proteins. PLoS Pathog. 2012 May; 8(5): e1002700. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3364958/
  3. Feeney MJ et al. Mushrooms – biologically distinct and nutritionally unique. Nutr Today. 2014; 49(6): 301-7  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4244211/
  4. Cardwell G et al. A Review of Mushrooms as a Potential Source of Dietary Vitamin D. Nutrients. 2018 Oct 13;10(10). pii: E1498. doi: 10.3390/nu10101498
  5. Phillips KM, Rasor AS. A nutritionally meaningful increase in the vitamin D in retail mushrooms is attainable by exposure to sunlight prior to consumption. Nutrition & Food Sciences 2013; 3 (6): http://omicsonline.org/a-nutritionally-meaningful-increase-in-vitamin-d-in-retail-mushrooms-is-attainable-by-exposure-to-sunlight-prior-to-consumption-2155-9600.1000236.pdf
  6. Khatun K et al. Oyster mushroom reduced blood glucose and cholesterol in diabetic subjects. Mymensingh Med J. 2007 Jan;16(1):94-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17344789
  7. Sang-Chul Jeong, et al. White button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) intake alters blood glucose and cholesterol levels in diabetic and hyperlipidemic rats. Nutrition Research. 2010; 30(1): 49-56.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20116660
  8. Dikeman CL, et al. Effects of stage of maturity and cooking on the chemical composition of selected mushroom varieties. J Agricultural & Food Chemistry 2005; 53: 1130-1138. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15713030
  9. Cheung PCK. Mini-review on edible mushrooms as source of dietary fiber: Preparation and health benefits. Food Science & Human wellness. 2013; 2(3-4):162-6 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213453013000426
  10. Gil-Ramírez A et al. Molecular actions of hypocholesterolaemic compounds from edible mushrooms. Food Funct. 2018 Jan 24;9(1):53-69. doi: 10.1039/c7fo00835j. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29177335
  11. Guillamón E et al. Edible mushrooms: role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Fitoterapia. 2010 Oct;81(7):715-23. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2010.06.005. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20550954

The unique flavour in mushrooms is known as umami. It’s the natural glutamates that give mushrooms their deliciously rich, savoury ‘umami’ flavour that makes them a favourite with meat eaters and vegetarians alike.1

One of the best benefits of foods containing glutamate is that when they are added to meals, the salt content can be reduced by 30-40% without affecting the flavour.2 That means when you add mushrooms to a meal, you can cook with or add less salt. In fact, you may be able to get away with no salt at all and let the flavour of mushrooms do the talking.

The natural glutamates in mushrooms are not to be confused with the monosodium glutamate (MSG) sometimes added to foods as a flavour enhancer. There is no MSG in mushrooms.

For many years there were four known taste sensations: sweet, sour, salty and bitter. Foods with natural glutamates provided a fifth taste, called umami. Umami is a Japanese term first coined by Kikunae Ikeda, professor of physical chemistry at the University of Tokyo, in 1908. It is the colloquial Japanese term for “tasty” and Professor Ikeda used it to describe the taste of a broth made from seaweed, dried fish and shiitake mushrooms .3

REFERENCES

  1. Mau JL. The umami taste of edible and medicinal mushrooms. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2005; 7(1): 119-26. http://www.dl.begellhouse.com/journals/708ae68d64b17c52,2cbf07a603004731,791333c0183c5693.html
  2. Mouritsen OG. Umami flavour as a means of regulating food intake and improving nutrition and health. Nutrition & Health 2012; 21 (1): 56-75 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22544776
  3. Kurihara K. Glutamate: from discovery as a food flavor to role as a basic taste (umami). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009; 90 (suppl): 719S-722S https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19640953

Gluten is a type of protein found in many grains, such as wheat, rye and barley. Some people have a sensitivity to gluten, such as people with Coeliac disease. About one in 70 people in Australia have Coeliac disease and many remain undiagnosed.1 Others have gluten sensitivity or want to avoid gluten in their diets for other reasons.

Mushrooms do not naturally contain gluten. Mushrooms grow in compost that contains wheat straw and some people have been concerned that the compost could be a source of gluten.

However, there is no gluten in the straw, only in the grain – and grain isn’t used in compost. If you see little specks of compost on the surface of the mushroom, you can just brush it off. There is no need to wash or peel the mushroom.

The Glycemic Index (GI) is the measure of the effect a carbohydrate-containing food has on your blood glucose levels. The effect is an indication of the speed at which the carbohydrate in food is digested into glucose and absorbed into the bloodstream.

Mushrooms have a low carbohydrate level. In fact, it is so low that mushrooms can’t be GI tested. One study found that the addition of mushrooms to a meal may help to lower the blood glucose levels in people with type 2 diabetes.2-4

Diabetes is a common condition where blood glucose levels rise above a normal healthy level. Estimates suggest 1.2million people in Australia have diabetes, with the majority having type 2 diabetes.5,6

The dietary advice for people with diabetes is to eat mainly low GI and minimally processed foods. This includes fruits, vegetables, legumes, mushrooms, lean meats, low-fat dairy, nuts and wholegrain breads and cereal foods. Foods that are the least processed generally have a low to moderate glycemic index rating.

The GI of some common carbohydrate foods are given in the table below.

Low GI Medium GI High GI
Breads, cereals wholegrain bread, sourdough rye, porridge, All-Bran, muesli rye bread, pita bread, sourdough white white breads, flat breads, crispbreads, water crackers
Rice, pasta pasta, spaghetti, noodles, quinoa, buckwheat gnocchi, Arborio rice, Doongara rice, Basmati rice Medium grain, jasmine, sushi rices
Mushrooms All types
Vegetables, legumes carrots, corn, baked beans, chick peas, lentils beetroot, pumpkin, new potatoes sweet potato, potato, swede
Fruit orange, banana, apple, pear pineapple, cherries, raisins watermelon, lychee, processed fruit snacks
Dairy foods milk, yogurt, custard
Snacks nuts, chocolate muesli bars, potato chips confectionery, biscuits, cereal bars
Spreads marmalade, 100% fruit jams honey, golden syrup glucose (syrup), maltose, maltodextrin
Drinks 100% fruit and vegetable juices, milk based drinks some soft drinks/ cordials Sports drinks, oral rehydration drinks

REFERENCES

  1. https://www.coeliac.org.au/coeliac-disease/#Coeliac3
  2. Jayasuriya WT et al. Hypoglycaemic activity of culinary Pleurotus ostreatus and P. cystidiosus mushrooms in healthy volunteers and type 2 diabetic patients on diet control and the possible mechanisms of action. Phytother Res. 2015; 29(2):303-9
  3. Khatun K et al. Oyster mushroom reduced blood glucose and cholesterol in diabetic subjects. Mymensingh Med J. 2007 Jan;16(1):94-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17344789
  4. Sang-Chul Jeong, et al. White button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) intake alters blood glucose and cholesterol levels in diabetic and hyperlipidemic rats. Nutrition Research. 2010; 30(1): 49-56.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20116660
  5. https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/diabetes/diabetes-snapshot/contents/how-many-australians-have-diabetes
  6. https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/diabetes/diabetes-snapshot/contents/how-many-australians-have-diabetes/type-2-diabetes

 

 

NUTRITION INFORMATION PANEL

NUTRITION INFORMATION
Servings per package: 1
Serving size: 100g or 3 cup mushrooms

Average Quantity per Serving Percentage Daily Intake* Average Quantity per 100g
Energy 86kJ (20kcal) 1% 86kJ (20kcal)
Protein, total 2.3g 5% 2.3g
Fat, total
– saturated
– trans
– polyunsaturated
– monounsaturated
0.4g
0.1g
3.5mg
0.2g
0g
<1%
<1%
0.4g
0.1g
3.5mg
0.2g
0g
Carbohydrate
– sugars
0.3g
0g
<1%
0%
0.3g
0g
Dietary fibre, total¹
– Resistant starch¹
2.7g
0.4g
9% 2.7g
0.4g
Sodium 9mg <1% 9mg
Potassium 360mg 360mg
Riboflavin (B2)¹ 0.37mg 22% 0.37mg
Niacin 3.8mg eq 38% 3.8mg eq
Pantothenic acid 1.2mg 24% 1.2mg
Biotin 8.5ug 28% 8.5ug
Folate 22ug DFE 11% 22ug DFE
Vitamin B12 0.1ug 0.1ug
Vitamin D (UV enhanced) 24ug 480% 24ug
Vitamin D (std raw) 2ug 20% 24ug
Copper 0.37mg 12% 0.37mg
Phosphorus 110mg 11% 110mg
Selenium 16ug 23% 16ug
Polyphenols² 64mg GAE 64mg GAE
Gluten 0mg 0mg

*based on the average adult diet of 8700kJ
g = grams; mg = milligrams; ug = microgram “<” means less than
Data source: Australian Food Composition Database – Release 1.0
¹ Dikeman 2005 cooked mushroom
² USDA ORAC 2010

BODY BOOSTER

ANTIOXIDANTS

Mushrooms are known for their antioxidant properties and contain a wide range of valuable antioxidants.1 In a study comparing 30 common vegetables, mushrooms were placed in the top five vegetables with thehighest antioxidant capacity2. Mushrooms are also the highest dietary source of a unique sulfur-containing antioxidant called ergothioneine (er-go-thio-neen)3. They contain antioxidant vitamins and minerals such as riboflavin, copper and selenium, and polyphenols4.(Hyperlink to NIP) So it’s not surprisingly eating 100g (about 3 cup, 5-7 button or 1 portabella) mushrooms a day improved antioxidant status.5

Antioxidants are natural compounds found in food and they help neutralise free radicals6,7. Free radicals can cause damage to the body over time, speeding up the ageing process. For example, free radicals can damage the DNA (our genetic blueprint) found in the centre of our cells. Antioxidants in foods like mushrooms can help to protect the body from the damaging effects of free radicals, which can be produced as by-products of metabolism, or come from environmental stresses such as air pollution or smoking8.

CHOLESTEROL AND BLOOD PRESSURE

Mushrooms like vegetables are very low in sodium, a source of potassium, and virtually saturated fat free.(Hyperlink to NIP) This makes mushrooms the perfect addition to a healthy diet to help maintain blood pressure and blood cholesterol9. In one study, persons with diabetes who ate oyster mushrooms on a daily basis over a week had a reduction in their total cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure and blood glucose levels10. Mushrooms as part of a healthy diet may contribute to our heart health11).

HEALTHY GUT

Mushrooms contain prebiotics, a type of fibre, that may help to support a healthy gut12. In a study on white button mushrooms, there were 3 grams of dietary fibre in a 100 gram serve of mushrooms, which is about 10% of your daily fibre needs13. The fibre in mushrooms is mainly insoluble, the type that helps keep your bowels regular14. In one study on white button, cremini, portabella and enoki mushrooms, around 15% of the total dietary fibre was found to be resistant starch13. Resistant starch acts as a prebiotic because it resists digestion and becomes food for the healthy bacteria residing in the large intestine or bowel. Consuming 226g white button mushrooms in replacement of red meat each day for 10 days was shown to have a positive effect on the gut microbiome and improved bowel function in individuals15. Mushrooms also contain glutamates which contribute to their deliciously rich savoury flavour16. Glutamates are also a signalling molecule in the nervous system of the gut which help can signal fullness17,18. Together the fibre and glutamates in mushrooms may help control appetite19.

WEIGHT MANAGEMENT

Mushrooms are low in kilojoules, making them ideally suited for those watching their calorie intake. 100g (about 3 cup, 5-7 button or 1 portabella) mushrooms has only 86kJs (20kcals) (Hyperlink to NIP). Mushrooms can also make a meal more filling. In one study, consuming 226 grams of mushrooms at breakfast increased feelings of fullness and reduced hunger after the meal, compared to eating a similar amount of energy from red meat (28g)20. Another study found that in overweight people who replaced red meats with at least 450g of button mushrooms a week in an energy restricted diet for a year, they consistently ate less energy overall and lost more weight and centimetres around their waists compared to those who also followed an energy restricted diet but ate red meat 21. Mushroom eaters also had reduced blood pressure, total and LDL cholesterol and blood glucose, compared to the meat-eating group.21

HEALTHY SKIN

100g (about 3 cup, 5-7 button or 1 portabella) mushrooms provides a number of essential nutrients needed for healthy skin, hair or nails: niacin, biotin, copper, and selenium. (hyperlink to NIP)

Mushrooms exposed to UV light naturally generate vitamin D22. Vitamin D has an important role in keeping the skin healthy too23. Around 100g (about 3 cup, 5-7 button or 1 portabella) mushrooms in the sun for 15 minutes will generate 100% of your daily vitamin D needs in most places in Australia24,25. Some farmers are now producing mushrooms with a day’s supply of vitamin D (10-15ug) in a single serve by giving mushrooms a pulse of UV light after harvesting.26

REFERENCES

  1. Kozarski et al. Antioxidants of edible mushrooms. Molecules 2015;20(10):19489-525
  2. Pellegrini N, et al. Total antioxidant capacity of plant foods, beverages and oils consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays. J Nutrition 2003; 133: 2812-2819https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/133/9/2812/4688193
  3. Kalaras MD et al Mushrooms: A rich source of the antioxidants ergothioneine and glutathione. Food Chem. 2017 Oct 15;233:429-433. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.04.109. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28530594
  4. USDA Database for the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of Selected Foods, Release 2 2010 (Note only total polyphenol content is used)
  5. Calvo MS et al. A Retrospective Study in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome: Diabetic Risk Factor Response to Daily Consumption of Agaricus bisporus (White Button Mushrooms). Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2016 Sep;71(3):245-51. doi: 10.1007/s11130-016-0552-7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27193019
  6. Savoie JM, et al. Radical-scavenging properties of extracts from the white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. J of the Science of Food & Agriculture 2008; 88: 970-975.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/229729702_Radical-scavenging_properties_of_extracts_from_the_white_button_mushroom_Agaricus_bisporus
  7. Sánchez C et al. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant properties from mushrooms. Synth Syst Biotechnol. 2016 Dec 24;2(1):13-22. doi: 10.1016/j.synbio.2016.12.001. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5625788/
  8. Better Health Channel. Antioxidants. Available from: https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/healthyliving/antioxidants
  9. Food Standards Australia New Zealand Australian Food Standards Code. Schedule 4 Nutrition, health and related claims. https://www.legislation.gov.au/Series/F2015L00474
  10. Jayachandran et al. A critical review on health promoting benefits of edible mushrooms through gut microbiota. Int J Mol Sci 2017 Sept;18(9):1934
  1. Khatun K et al. Oyster mushroom reduced blood glucose and cholesterol in diabetic subjects. Mymensingh Med J. 2007 Jan;16(1):94-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17344789
  2. Guillamón E, et al. Edible mushrooms: role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Fitoterapia 2010; 81 (7): 715-723https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20550954
  3. Dikeman CL, et al. Effects of stage of maturity and cooking on the chemical composition of selected mushroom varieties. J Agricultural & Food Chemistry 2005; 53: 1130-1138.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15713030
  4. Cheung Mini-review on edible mushrooms as a source of dietary fibre: Preparation and health benefits. Food Sci Human Wellness 2013;2(3-4):162-6. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213453013000426
  5. Hess J et al. Impact of Agaricus bisporus Mushroom Consumption on Gut Health Markers in Healthy Adults. Nutrients. 2018 Oct 2;10(10). pii: E1402. doi: 10.3390/nu10101402. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213353/
  6. Zhang et al, Recent developments on umami ingredients of edible mushrooms – A review. Trends in Food Sci & tech, 2013;33(2):78-92 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0924224413001611
  7. Uneyama H et al. Physiological role of dietary free glutamate in the food digestion. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:372-5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18296382
  8. Masic U et al. Umami flavor enhances appetite but also increases satiety. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Aug;100(2):532-8. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.080929. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24944058
VITAMINS & MINERALS

Mushrooms are a family favourite superfood! They contain a unique blend of vitamins, minerals and antioxidants that the whole family needs. (See Nutrition Information tab) B group vitamins, copper, potassium, selenium and polyphenols.1 Plus mushrooms exposed to sunlight naturally generate vitamin D, which is important for healthy bones and teeth and keeping our immune system strong.2

B Vitamins

Mushrooms contain many important B group vitamins: riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin. (See Nutrition Information tab) B group vitamins contribute to a number of vital body functions, as part of a healthy balanced diet:3

  • Help release energy from food (biotin, niacin, riboflavin and pantothenic acid)
  • Reduce fatigue (folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin)
  • Help maintain brain function (biotin, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin)
  • Generate healthy blood (riboflavin)
  • Assist with iron transport (riboflavin)
  • Maintain good vision (riboflavin)

Pantothenic acid is involved in many different steps for making neurotransmitters, hormones and haemoglobin. Most interesting, mushrooms are a source of pantothenic acid, which is essential for energy production, as part of a healthy balanced diet.  

FOLATE

Mushrooms contain 22 micrograms of folate in 100g (about 3 cup, 5-7 button or 1 portabella) mushrooms. (See Nutrition Information tab) Folate is an important vitamin for women just before they fall pregnant and in the first trimester when they need 400 micrograms of folate per day. Folate is also important for blood cell formation, production of tissues during pregnancy and normal immune function.3 It is important to eat a wide range of foods during pregnancy that contain folate or folic acid, such as citrus fruits, vegetables like green leafy vegetables, legumes, nuts and fortified grains such as breads and breakfast cereals. . Click here for delicious mushroom recipes!

Vitamin B12

Ground-breaking research at the University of Western Sydney has found there are wide-ranging amounts of active vitamin B12 in button, cup and flat mushrooms. As vitamin B12 in mushrooms is especially found in the outer peel, it suggests the B12 is bacteria derived.4 This makes mushrooms the only non-animal fresh food source of B12 – another reason why mushrooms are such a unique food and ideal for vegans and vegetarians.5 A 100g serve of mushrooms may contribute up to 5% of your daily Vitamin B12 requirements. (See Nutrition Information tab) Click here for a delicious mushroom recipe! 

Vitamin D

Vitamin D deficiency is commonplace in Australia with about one third of us having insufficient levels.6 Vitamin D helps make bones strong by assisting with calcium absorption. Mushrooms exposed to sunlight naturally generate vitamin D, making mushrooms one of the only non-animal natural sources of vitamin D.7 A 100g serve of mushrooms left in the sun for 15 minutes can generate 100% of your daily needs of vitamin D.7-9 Only 15 minutes of sunlight exposure is needed, meaning your mushrooms can still retain most of their good looks, flavour and nutrition.10 In some parts of Australia, you can buy vitamin D mushrooms. The vitamin D in these enhanced mushrooms is available for absorption and boosts vitamin D levels in the body especially when vitamin D levels are low.11-13

Copper

100g (about 3 cup, 5-7 button or 1 portabella) mushrooms provide over 20% of your daily needs for copper. (See Nutrition Information tab) Similar to the B group vitamins, copper plays a vital role in energy production, brain function and the immune system. Copper is necessary for iron transport, maintaining normal skin and hair colouration, and is also an antioxidant, which protects cells from free radical damage.3

Selenium

Selenium is another essential mineral that is an antioxidant, and helps to prevent free radical damage.3 A 100g serve of mushrooms can provide nearly a quarter of your daily needs of selenium (See Nutrition Information tab). Selenium works with iodine to produce thyroid hormones, plus it’s vital for sperm production.3

Phosphorus

100g (about 3 cup, 5-7 button or 1 portabella) mushrooms will provide 11% of your daily phosphorus needs (See Nutrition Information tab). The main role of phosphorus, in combination with calcium, is to form the basic structure of teeth and bones.3 Phosphorus is also needed for energy metabolism and is a critical part of a high-energy compound called ATP that is used during muscle contraction.3

Potassium

Potassium foods are a must for any amateur athlete or weekend warrior. It plays a major role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance and is needed for nerve and muscle function.3 Mushrooms contain 360mg of potassium per 100g (See Nutrition Information tab). A healthy, varied diet with plenty of potassium and low in sodium (salt) helps maintain healthy blood pressure.3 High blood pressure is a risk factor for heart disease.

ANTIOXIDANTS

Mushrooms contain a number of antioxidants from vitamins and minerals with antioxidant functions such as riboflavin, copper and selenium and other natural bioactive compounds such as polyphenols and ergothioneine (er-go-thio-neen) which is unique to mushrooms.14 (See Nutrition Information tab)

REFERENCES

  1. Dubost et al. Quantification of polyphenols and ergothioneine in cultivated mushrooms and correlation to total antioxidant capacity. Anal Nutr & Clin Methods. 2007; 105(2): 727-35 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814607000659
  2. Cardwell G et al. A Review of Mushrooms as a Potential Source of Dietary Vitamin D. Nutrients. 2018 Oct 13;10(10). pii: E1498. doi: 10.3390/nu10101498
  3. Food Standards Australia New Zealand Australian Food Standards Code. Schedule 4 Nutrition, health and related claims. https://www.legislation.gov.au/Series/F2015L00474
  4. Koyyalamudi SR, et al. Vitamin B12 is the active corrinoid produced in cultivated white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). J Agricultural & Food Chemistry 2009; 57 (14): 6327-6333https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19552428
  5. Watanabe F et al. Vitamin B-12 containing food sources for vegetarians. Nutrients. 2014; 6(5): 1861-73 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4042564/
  6. Daly RM, et al. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its determinants in Australian adults aged 25 years and older: a national, population-based study. Clinical Endocrinology 2012; 77 (1): 26-35. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22168576
  7. Cardwell G et al. A Review of Mushrooms as a Potential Source of Dietary Vitamin D. Nutrients. 2018 Oct 13;10(10). pii: E1498. doi: 10.3390/nu10101498. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213178/
  8. Simon RR. Vitamin D mushrooms: comparison of the composition of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) treated post harvest with UVB light or sunlight. J Agric Food Chem. 2011; 59(16):8724-32 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21736377
  9. National Health and Medical Research Council. Nutrient Reference Values – Vitamin D. https://www.nrv.gov.au/nutrients/vitamin-d
  10. Kalaras MD et al. Effects of post-harvest pulsed UV light treatment of white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) on vitamin D2 content and quality attributes. J Agric Food Chem. 2012; 60(1):220-5
  11. Cashman KD et al. Effect of Ultraviolet Light-Exposed Mushrooms on Vitamin D Status: Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Reanalysis of Biobanked Sera from a Randomized Controlled Trial and a Systematic Review plus Meta-Analysis. J Nutr. 2016 Mar;146(3):565-75. doi: 10.3945/jn.115.223784. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26865648
  12. Urbain P, et al. Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from UV-B-irradiated button mushrooms in healthy adults deficient in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: a randomised controlled trial. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2011; 65 (8): 965-971. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21540874
  13. Mehrota A, et al. Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from enriched mushrooms in prediabetic adults: a randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2014;68(10):1154-60 doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.157.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25117997
  14. Kalaras MD et al Mushrooms: A rich source of the antioxidants ergothioneine and glutathione. Food Chem. 2017 Oct 15;233:429-433. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.04.109. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28530594

 

PROTEIN & CARBOHYDRATES

PROTEIN

Mushrooms contain a small amount of protein, about 2g per 100g (see Nutrition Information tab), but the types of protein are unique.1 For example, hydrophobins are proteins found only in mushrooms and they contribute to the texture of the mushroom.2 This protein along with the natural glutamates and other natural flavour compounds make mushroom’s texture and flavour so unique.3

Fat

There is virtually no fat in mushrooms, (see Nutrition Information tab) and what there is, is found in the cell wall, so mushrooms can store fat-soluble vitamin D.4 Mushrooms naturally generate vitamin D after they have been exposed to UV light.5

CARBOHYDRATE

Mushrooms have a low carbohydrate content (see Nutrition Information tab) which means that mushrooms may have little effect on blood glucose levels, which could make them a good food choice for people with diabetes.6,7

FIBRE

In a study on white button mushrooms, there were 3 grams of dietary fibre in a 100g serve (see Nutrition Information tab), which is about 10% of your daily fibre needs.8 The fibre in mushrooms is mainly insoluble, the type of fibre that helps to keep bowels regular.9 Around 15% of the total dietary fibre in mushrooms is resistant starch.8 Resistant starch acts as a prebiotic because it resists digestion and travels to the large intestine where it becomes food for the healthy bacteria residing there. The fibre in mushrooms is different to that found in fruits and vegetables, so it helps complement the health benefits of plant fibre.9 Mushroom fibre includes beta glucans, which have been linked to reducing cholesterol reabsorption in the gut.10,11

KILOJOULES

Mushrooms are a low kilojoule food with less than 100kJ per 100g (about 3 cup, 5-7 button or 1 portabella) mushrooms (see Nutrition Information tab). When eaten as part of a healthy diet, mushrooms along with non-starchy plant foods can be great for those trying to monitor their calorie intake. With its deliciously rich savoury flavour, the mushroom makes an ideal inclusion into both vegetarian and meat dishes. 100g (about 3 cup, 5-7 button or 1 portabella) mushrooms is a simple way to boost your nutritional intake for very few kilojoules. Click here for delicious mushroom recipes!

REFERENCES

  1. Xu X, et al. Bioactive proteins from mushrooms. Biotechnology Advances 2011; 29: 667-674https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21605654
  2. Bayry J et al. Hydrophobins—Unique Fungal Proteins. PLoS Pathog. 2012 May; 8(5): e1002700. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3364958/
  3. Feeney MJ et al. Mushrooms – biologically distinct and nutritionally unique. Nutr Today. 2014; 49(6): 301-7  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4244211/
  4. Cardwell G et al. A Review of Mushrooms as a Potential Source of Dietary Vitamin D. Nutrients. 2018 Oct 13;10(10). pii: E1498. doi: 10.3390/nu10101498
  5. Phillips KM, Rasor AS. A nutritionally meaningful increase in the vitamin D in retail mushrooms is attainable by exposure to sunlight prior to consumption. Nutrition & Food Sciences 2013; 3 (6): http://omicsonline.org/a-nutritionally-meaningful-increase-in-vitamin-d-in-retail-mushrooms-is-attainable-by-exposure-to-sunlight-prior-to-consumption-2155-9600.1000236.pdf
  6. Khatun K et al. Oyster mushroom reduced blood glucose and cholesterol in diabetic subjects. Mymensingh Med J. 2007 Jan;16(1):94-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17344789
  7. Sang-Chul Jeong, et al. White button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) intake alters blood glucose and cholesterol levels in diabetic and hyperlipidemic rats. Nutrition Research. 2010; 30(1): 49-56.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20116660
  8. Dikeman CL, et al. Effects of stage of maturity and cooking on the chemical composition of selected mushroom varieties. J Agricultural & Food Chemistry 2005; 53: 1130-1138. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15713030
  9. Cheung PCK. Mini-review on edible mushrooms as source of dietary fiber: Preparation and health benefits. Food Science & Human wellness. 2013; 2(3-4):162-6 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213453013000426
  10. Gil-Ramírez A et al. Molecular actions of hypocholesterolaemic compounds from edible mushrooms. Food Funct. 2018 Jan 24;9(1):53-69. doi: 10.1039/c7fo00835j. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29177335
  11. Guillamón E et al. Edible mushrooms: role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Fitoterapia. 2010 Oct;81(7):715-23. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2010.06.005. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20550954

 

UNIQUE FLAVOUR = LESS SALT

THE UNIQUE MUSHROOM FLAVOUR

The unique flavour in mushrooms is known as umami. It’s the natural glutamates that give mushrooms their deliciously rich, savoury ‘umami’ flavour that makes them a favourite with meat eaters and vegetarians alike.1

One of the best benefits of foods containing glutamate is that when they are added to meals, the salt content can be reduced by 30-40% without affecting the flavour.2 That means when you add mushrooms to a meal, you can cook with or add less salt. In fact, you may be able to get away with no salt at all and let the flavour of mushrooms do the talking.

The natural glutamates in mushrooms are not to be confused with the monosodium glutamate (MSG) sometimes added to foods as a flavour enhancer. There is no MSG in mushrooms.

 

UMAMI

For many years there were four known taste sensations: sweet, sour, salty and bitter. Foods with natural glutamates provided a fifth taste, called umami. Umami is a Japanese term first coined by Kikunae Ikeda, professor of physical chemistry at the University of Tokyo, in 1908. It is the colloquial Japanese term for “tasty” and Professor Ikeda used it to describe the taste of a broth made from seaweed, dried fish and shiitake mushrooms .3

REFERENCES

  1. Mau JL. The umami taste of edible and medicinal mushrooms. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2005; 7(1): 119-26. http://www.dl.begellhouse.com/journals/708ae68d64b17c52,2cbf07a603004731,791333c0183c5693.html
  2. Mouritsen OG. Umami flavour as a means of regulating food intake and improving nutrition and health. Nutrition & Health 2012; 21 (1): 56-75 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22544776
  3. Kurihara K. Glutamate: from discovery as a food flavor to role as a basic taste (umami). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009; 90 (suppl): 719S-722S https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19640953

 

GLUTEN FREE & LOW GI

GLUTEN FREE

Gluten is a type of protein found in many grains, such as wheat, rye and barley. Some people have a sensitivity to gluten, such as people with Coeliac disease. About one in 70 people in Australia have Coeliac disease and many remain undiagnosed.1 Others have gluten sensitivity or want to avoid gluten in their diets for other reasons.

Mushrooms do not naturally contain gluten. Mushrooms grow in compost that contains wheat straw and some people have been concerned that the compost could be a source of gluten.

However, there is no gluten in the straw, only in the grain – and grain isn’t used in compost. If you see little specks of compost on the surface of the mushroom, you can just brush it off. There is no need to wash or peel the mushroom.

LOW GLYCEMIC INDEX

The Glycemic Index (GI) is the measure of the effect a carbohydrate-containing food has on your blood glucose levels. The effect is an indication of the speed at which the carbohydrate in food is digested into glucose and absorbed into the bloodstream.

Mushrooms have a low carbohydrate level. In fact, it is so low that mushrooms can’t be GI tested. One study found that the addition of mushrooms to a meal may help to lower the blood glucose levels in people with type 2 diabetes.2-4

Diabetes is a common condition where blood glucose levels rise above a normal healthy level. Estimates suggest 1.2million people in Australia have diabetes, with the majority having type 2 diabetes.5,6

The dietary advice for people with diabetes is to eat mainly low GI and minimally processed foods. This includes fruits, vegetables, legumes, mushrooms, lean meats, low-fat dairy, nuts and wholegrain breads and cereal foods. Foods that are the least processed generally have a low to moderate glycemic index rating.

The GI of some common carbohydrate foods are given in the table below.

  Low GI Medium GI High GI
Breads, cereals wholegrain bread, sourdough rye, porridge, All-Bran, muesli rye bread, pita bread, sourdough white white breads, flat breads, crispbreads, water crackers
Rice, pasta pasta, spaghetti, noodles, quinoa, buckwheat gnocchi, Arborio rice, Doongara rice, Basmati rice Medium grain, jasmine, sushi rices
Mushrooms All types    
Vegetables, legumes carrots, corn, baked beans, chick peas, lentils beetroot, pumpkin, new potatoes sweet potato, potato, swede
Fruit orange, banana, apple, pear pineapple, cherries, raisins watermelon, lychee, processed fruit snacks
Dairy foods milk, yogurt, custard    
Snacks nuts, chocolate muesli bars, potato chips confectionery, biscuits, cereal bars
Spreads marmalade, 100% fruit jams honey, golden syrup glucose (syrup), maltose, maltodextrin
Drinks 100% fruit and vegetable juices, milk based drinks some soft drinks/ cordials Sports drinks, oral rehydration drinks

 

REFERENCES

  1. https://www.coeliac.org.au/coeliac-disease/#Coeliac3
  2. Jayasuriya WT et al. Hypoglycaemic activity of culinary Pleurotus ostreatus and P. cystidiosus mushrooms in healthy volunteers and type 2 diabetic patients on diet control and the possible mechanisms of action. Phytother Res. 2015; 29(2):303-9
  3. Khatun K et al. Oyster mushroom reduced blood glucose and cholesterol in diabetic subjects. Mymensingh Med J. 2007 Jan;16(1):94-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17344789
  4. Sang-Chul Jeong, et al. White button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) intake alters blood glucose and cholesterol levels in diabetic and hyperlipidemic rats. Nutrition Research. 2010; 30(1): 49-56.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20116660
  5. https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/diabetes/diabetes-snapshot/contents/how-many-australians-have-diabetes
  6. https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/diabetes/diabetes-snapshot/contents/how-many-australians-have-diabetes/type-2-diabetes

 

NUTRITION INFORMATION
 

NUTRITION INFORMATION PANEL

NUTRITION INFORMATION Servings per package: 1 Serving size: 100g or 3 cup mushrooms
  Average Quantity per Serving % Daily Intake* Average Quantity per 100g
Energy 86kJ (20kcal) 1% 86kJ (20kcal)
Protein, total 2.3g 5% 2.3g
Fat, total – saturated – trans – poly – mono 0.4g 0.1g 3.5mg 0.2g 0g <1% <1% 0.4g 0.1g 3.5mg 0.2g 0g
Carbohydrate – sugars 0.3g 0g <1% 0% 0.3g 0g
Dietary fibre, total¹ - Resistant starch¹ 2.7g 0.4g 9% 2.7g 0.4g
Sodium 9mg <1% 9mg
Potassium 360mg   360mg
Riboflavin (B2)¹ 0.37mg 22% 0.37mg
Niacin 3.8mg eq 38% 3.8mg eq
Pantothenic acid 1.2mg 24% 1.2mg
Biotin 8.5ug 28% 8.5ug
Folate 22ug DFE 11% 22ug DFE
Vitamin B12 0.1ug   0.1ug
Vitamin D (UV enhanced) 24ug 480% 24ug
Vitamin D (std raw) 2ug 20% 24ug
Copper 0.37mg 12% 0.37mg
Phosphorus 110mg 11% 110mg
Selenium 16ug 23% 16ug
Polyphenols² 64mg GAE   64mg GAE
Gluten 0mg   0mg
 

*based on the average adult diet of 8700kJ g = grams; mg = milligrams; ug = microgram “<” means less than Data source: Australian Food Composition Database - Release 1.0 ¹ Dikeman 2005 cooked mushroom ² USDA ORAC 2010

   

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